Skip to Main Content

Brackenridge Optometry Library: Hierarchy of Evidence

More direct access to the resources that benefit the Optometry community.

What is EBM?

Evidence Based Medicine (or EBM) is "the integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values." (Sackett, David L., et al., Evidence-based medicine: how to practice and teach EBM. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 2000. p. 1)

Graphic diagram displaying the integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values.

Image courtesy of the Texas Medical Center Library EBM Guide. Earliest citation information:

PICO - Answering the clinical question

PICO is used as a guide to ask questions that can be answered with evidence.  

P = Patient or Population

I = Intervention or Indicator

C = Comparison or Control

O = Outcome

 Take a look at a great guide from Columbia University.

Hierarchy of Evidence

See the source image

Source: Sackett DL, Straus SE, Richardson WS, et al. Evidence-based medicine: how to practice and teach EBM.

More Evidence Based Practice Databases

chat loading...